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Ser Conjugation: All Language Resources Quick Guide

How to Conjugate SER

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The Spanish verb “ser” is one of the two verbs used to express the concept of “to be” in Spanish. Unlike the other verb, estar, which is used for temporary states and locations, “ser” is primarily used to indicate permanent or inherent qualities, characteristics, identities, professions, nationalities, and general descriptions.

It’s important to note that the verb “ser” is irregular, and its conjugation does not follow the regular patterns of most Spanish verbs. Therefore, it needs to be memorized separately. This post will take you through the conjugation of ser in all sixteen Spanish tenses across the indicative, subjunctive and imperative moods.

The Indicative Moods of Ser

Ser Present tense conjugation (Presente)

PronounConjugationEnglish
YoSoy I am
EresYou are 
VosSosYou are 
Él/Ella/UstedEsHe/She is, You are 
NosotrosSomosWe are 
VosotrosSoisYou are
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesSonThey are, You are 

Some common uses of the verb “ser” in include:

1. Identification and nationality:

   – Él es médico. (He is a doctor.)

   – Somos mexicanos. (We are Mexican.)

2. Description and characteristics:

   – El libro es interesante. (The book is interesting.)

   – La casa es grande. (The house is big.)

3. Occupations and professions:

   – Mi padre es profesor. (My father is a teacher.)

   – ¿Qué eres tú? (What do you do?)

4. Time and dates:

   – Hoy es lunes. (Today is Monday.)

   – La fiesta es el sábado. (The party is on Saturday.)

5. Possession and relationships:

   – El coche es de María. (The car is María’s.)

   – Ellos son hermanos. (They are siblings.)

Ser Imperfect Tense conjugation (Imperfecto)

The imperfect tense is used to describe ongoing or habitual actions in the past, as well as to set the scene or provide background information.

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoEraI was 
ErasYou were 
VosErasYou were 
Él/Ella/UstedEra He/She was, You were 
NosotrosÉramosWe were 
VosotrosÉraisYou were 
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesEranThey were, You were 

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the imperfect tense:

– Yo era estudiante. (I was a student.)

– Él era muy simpático. (He was very nice.)

– Nosotros éramos amigos de la infancia. (We were childhood friends.)

– Ustedes eran muy talentosos. (You all were very talented.)

Ser Preterite tense Conjugation (Pretérito)

The preterite tense is used to describe completed actions in the past. Here’s the conjugation of “ser” in the preterite tense:

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoFuiI was 
FuisteYou were
VosFuisteYou were
Él/Ella/UstedFueHe/She was, You were
NosotrosFuimosWe were 
VosotrosFuisteis You were 
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesFueronThey were, You were 

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the preterite tense:

– Yo fui estudiante. (I was a student.)

– Él fue muy amable. (He was very kind.)

– Nosotros fuimos al cine ayer. (We went to the movies yesterday.)

– Ustedes fueron muy valientes. (You all were very brave.)

Ser Future Tense Conjugation (Futuro)

The future tense is used to express actions that will happen in the future. Here’s the conjugation of “ser” in the future tense:

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoSeréI will be
SerásYou will be
VosSerásYou will be
Él/Ella/UstedSeráHe/She/You will be
NosotrosSeremosWe will be 
VosotrosSeréis They will be 
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesSeránThey will be, You will be

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the future tense:

– Yo seré maestro. (I will be a teacher.)

– Él será famoso algún día. (He will be famous someday.)

– Nosotros seremos felices juntos. (We will be happy together.)

– Ustedes serán los líderes del mañana. (You all will be the leaders of tomorrow.)

Ser Conditional Tense conjugation (Condicional)

The conditional tense is used to express hypothetical or speculative actions or events, often accompanied by an “if” clause.

Here’s the conjugation of “ser” in the conditional tense:

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoSeríaI would be
SeríasYou would be
VosSeríasYou would be
Él/Ella/UstedSeríaHe/She/You would be
NosotrosSeríamosWe would be
VosotrosSeríais You would be 
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesSeríanThey would be, You would be

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the conditional tense:

– Tú serías feliz si te mudaras a la playa. (You would be happy if you moved to the beach.)

– Él sería presidente si ganara las elecciones. (He would be president if he won the elections.)

– Nosotros seríamos famosos si nos dedicáramos al arte. (We would be famous if we pursued art.)

– Ustedes serían mejores amigos si se conocieran más. (You all would be best friends if you got to know each other more.)

Ser present perfect Conjugation (presente perfecto)

In Spanish, the present perfect tense is formed using the auxiliary verb “haber” (to have) followed by the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of “ser” is “sido.” So, to form the present perfect tense of “ser,” you would use the auxiliary verb “haber” and the past participle “sido.”

Here’s the conjugation of “ser” in the present perfect tense:

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoHe sidoI have been
Has sidoYou have been
VosHas sidoYou have been
Él/Ella/UstedHa sidoHe/She has been, You have been
NosotrosHemos sidoWe have been
VosotrosHabéis sidoYou have been
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesHan sidoThey have been, You have been

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the present perfect tense:

– Yo he sido estudiante toda mi vida. (I have been a student all my life.)

– Él ha sido muy generoso conmigo. (He has been very generous with me.)

– Nosotros hemos sido buenos amigos desde la infancia. (We have been good friends since childhood.)

– Ustedes han sido una inspiración para todos nosotros. (You all have been an inspiration to all of us.)

The present perfect tense is used to talk about past actions or states that have a connection to the present. It emphasizes the result or consequence of the action.

Ser Past Perfect Conjugation (pretérito anterior)

The past perfect tense is formed using the auxiliary verb “haber” (to have) in the imperfect tense followed by the past participle of the main verb. The past participle of “ser” is “sido.” So, to form the past perfect tense of “ser,” you would use the imperfect tense of “haber” and the past participle “sido.”

Here’s the conjugation of “ser” in the past perfect tense:

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoHube sido I was 
Hubiste sido You were 
VosHubiste sido You were 
Él/Ella/UstedHubo sidoHe/She was, You were 
NosotrosHubimos sido We were 
VosotrosHubisteis sido You were 
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesHubieron sido They were, You were 

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the past perfect tense:

– Yo había sido estudiante antes de obtener mi título. (I had been a student before obtaining my degree.)

– Él había sido actor en varias películas antes de retirarse. (He had been an actor in several movies before retiring.)

– Nosotros habíamos sido vecinos durante muchos años. (We had been neighbors for many years.)

– Ustedes habían sido muy amables conmigo en el pasado. (You all had been very kind to me in the past.)

The past perfect tense is used to talk about past actions or states that occurred before another past event. It emphasizes the completion or duration of the action prior to another point in the past.

Ser Pluperfect conjugation (pretérito pluscuamperfecto)

The pluperfect tense is used to express an action that occurred before another past action or event. It is formed by combining the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb “haber” (to have) with the past participle of the main verb.

However, it is important to note that the verb “ser” is not commonly used in the pluperfect tense due to its meaning as “to be.” The pluperfect tense is typically used with action verbs that convey events or actions.

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoHabía sidoI had been
Habías sidoYou had been
VosHabías sidoYou had been
Él/Ella/UstedHabía sidoHe/She/You had been
NosotrosHabíamos sidoWe had been
VosotrosHabíais sidoYou had been
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesHabían sidoThey had been, You had been

While it is not commonly used in Spanish, we can use the pluperfect of ser as another way to discuss hypothetical actions.

Certainly! While the verb “ser” is not commonly used in the pluperfect tense, I can provide you with some examples to illustrate how it would be used in hypothetical situations:

1. Yo había sido un gran jugador de fútbol si me hubiera entrenado más. (I would have been a great soccer player if I had trained more.)

2. Tú habías sido un excelente estudiante si hubieras estudiado con más dedicación. (You would have been an excellent student if you had studied more diligently.)

3. Él había sido un exitoso empresario si hubiera aprovechado las oportunidades adecuadas. (He would have been a successful entrepreneur if he had seized the right opportunities.)

4. Nosotros habíamos sido una pareja feliz si nos hubiéramos comunicado mejor. (We would have been a happy couple if we had communicated better.)

5. Vosotros habíais sido reconocidos artistas si hubierais desarrollado vuestro talento. (You all would have been renowned artists if you had developed your talent.)

6. Ellos habían sido grandes amigos si hubieran superado sus diferencias. (They would have been great friends if they had overcome their differences.)

Ser Future Perfect Conjugation (Futuro Perfecto)

The future perfect tense (futuro perfecto) is a compound tense that indicates an action that will have been completed in the future before another future action or time reference. The future perfect tense is formed by using the future tense of the auxiliary verb “haber” (to have) followed by the past participle of the main verb.

Here’s the conjugation of “ser” in the future perfect tense:

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoHabré sidoI will have been
Habrás sido You will have been
VosHabrás sido You will have been
Él/Ella/UstedHabrá sidoHe/She/You will have been
NosotrosHabremos sido We will have been
VosotrosHabréis sidoYou will have been
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesHabrán sido They will have been, You will have been 

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the future perfect tense:

– Para el año próximo, yo habré sido abogado por diez años. (By next year, I will have been a lawyer for ten years.)

– En el futuro, tú habrás sido un gran líder. (In the future, you will have been a great leader.)

– Para esa fecha, él habrá sido reconocido internacionalmente. (By that time, he will have been internationally recognized.)

– Dentro de cinco años, nosotros habremos sido esposos durante una década. (In five years, we will have been married for a decade.)

– En el futuro, ustedes habrán sido expertos en su campo. (In the future, you all will have been experts in your field.)

The future perfect tense allows you to express actions or states that will be completed before a specific future time or event. It emphasizes the completion of the action in relation to the future.

Ser Conditional Perfect Conjugation (Condicional Perfecto)

In Spanish, the conditional perfect tense (condicional perfecto) is a compound tense used to express actions that would have been completed in the past under certain conditions. It combines the conditional tense of the auxiliary verb “haber” (to have) with the past participle of the main verb.

However, it’s important to note that the verb “ser” is not commonly used in the conditional perfect tense due to its meaning as “to be.” The conditional perfect tense is typically used with action verbs that can convey completed actions.

Nonetheless, here is the conjugation of “ser” in the conditional perfect tense for the sake of completeness:

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoHabría sidoI would have been 
Habrías sidoYou would have been 
VosHabrías sidoYou would have been 
Él/Ella/UstedHabría sidoHe/She/You would have been 
NosotrosHabríamos sido We would have been
VosotrosHabríais sidoYou would have been
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesHabrían sido They would have been, You would have been 

Although the use of “ser” in the conditional perfect tense may be limited, here are a few hypothetical examples:

– Yo habría sido astronauta si hubiera estudiado ingeniería aeroespacial. (I would have been an astronaut if I had studied aerospace engineering.)

– Tú habrías sido famoso si hubieras seguido tu talento musical. (You would have been famous if you had pursued your musical talent.)

– Él habría sido un excelente escritor si hubiera desarrollado su creatividad. (He would have been an excellent writer if he had developed his creativity.)

– Nosotros habríamos sido ricos si hubiéramos invertido en esa empresa. (We would have been rich if we had invested in that company.)

– Ustedes habrían sido grandes líderes si hubieran tomado decisiones más acertadas. (You all would have been great leaders if you had made wiser decisions.)

As you can see, these examples are all extreme hypotheticals, so it’s unlikely that you’ll use the conditional perfect in everyday speech.

Ser in the Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive mood (modo subjuntivo) is one of the four moods in Spanish verb conjugation, along with the indicative, imperative, and conditional moods. The subjunctive mood is used to express various subjective actions, emotions, doubts, desires, possibilities, and hypothetical situations.

The subjunctive mood has different conjugation patterns depending on the verb tense and the subject of the sentence. Here are some key points to keep in mind:

1. Present Subjunctive: The present subjunctive is used to express actions or states that are uncertain, desired, or hypothetical in the present or future. It is commonly used with expressions of doubt, necessity, recommendation, emotion, and desire.

Example: Espero que tú estudies para el examen. (I hope that you study for the exam.)

2. Imperfect Subjunctive: The imperfect subjunctive is used to express actions or states that are uncertain or hypothetical in the past. It often appears in dependent clauses after certain conjunctions or expressions.

Example: Si yo fuera rico, viajaría por el mundo. (If I were rich, I would travel the world.)

3. Future Subjunctive: The future subjunctive is a less commonly used form in modern Spanish. It is used in some formal or literary contexts to express actions or states that are uncertain or hypothetical in the future.

Example: Cuando llegue el día, celebraremos tu éxito. (When the day comes, we will celebrate your success.)

It’s important to note that the subjunctive mood is frequently used in dependent clauses introduced by certain conjunctions or phrases, such as “que” (that), “para que” (so that), “a menos que” (unless), and “sin que” (without). These clauses often express purpose, conditions, recommendations, desires, or doubts.

The subjunctive mood can be challenging to master due to its various conjugation patterns and usage rules. It’s crucial to study and practice different sentence structures, conjunctions, and contexts to effectively use the subjunctive mood in Spanish.

It’s also worth noting that English does not use the subjunctive mood in the same way Spanish does, making some of the verb forms a little difficult to translate properly.

We will now look at how to conjugate ser in different tense in the subjunctive mood.

Ser Present Subjunctive Conjugation (presente de subjuntivo)

The present subjunctive of the verb “ser” is used to express uncertainty, doubt, desire, possibility, or subjective actions or states in the present. Here’s the conjugation of “ser” in the present subjunctive:

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoSeaI am
SeasYou are 
VosSeasYou are 
Él/Ella/UstedSea He/She is, You are 
NosotrosSeamosWe are 
VosotrosSeáisYou are
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesSeanThey are, You are 

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the present subjunctive:

– Espero que tú seas feliz. (I hope that you are happy.)

– Dudo que él sea el culpable. (I doubt that he is the guilty one.)

– Quiero que nosotros seamos amigos. (I want us to be friends.)

– Es importante que vosotros seáis responsables. (It’s important that you all be responsible.)

– Esperamos que ellos sean honestos. (We hope that they are honest.)

The present subjunctive is often used in dependent clauses after certain conjunctions or expressions, such as “esperar que” (to hope that), “dudar que” (to doubt that), “querer que” (to want that), and many others. These clauses express desires, doubts, recommendations, or conditions.

Ser Future Subjunctive Conjugation (futuro de subjuntivo)

The future subjunctive is a less commonly used verb form in modern Spanish and is generally reserved for formal or literary contexts. While the future subjunctive has largely fallen out of use in spoken language, it is still found in legal and academic writings, as well as in some traditional expressions.

For the verb “ser,” the future subjunctive is formed by taking the third person plural (ellos/ellas/ustedes) form of the preterite tense and replacing the final “-ron” with “-re.” Here is the conjugation of “ser” in the future subjunctive:

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoFuereI should be
FueresYou should be 
VosFueresYou should be
Él/Ella/UstedFuereHe/She is, You should be 
NosotrosFuéremosWe should be
VosotrosFuérais You should be
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesFuerenThey should be, You should be 

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the future subjunctive:

– Si yo fuere rico, viajaré por el mundo. (If I should be rich, I would travel the world.)

– Espero que tú fueres feliz. (I hope that you should be happy.)

– Dudo que él fuere el culpable. (I doubt that he should be the guilty one.)

– Quiero que nosotros fuéremos amigos. (I want that we should be friends.)

– Es importante que vosotros fuereis responsables. (It’s important that you should all be responsible.)

– Esperamos que ellos fueren honestos. (We hope that they should be honest.)

If English is your native language, you’ll notice that some of these translations sound strange. This is because we don’t use the future subjunctive all that much in English. It’s more common to use the indicative future tense.

Ser present perfect subjunctive conjugation (pretérito perfecto de subjuntivo)

The present perfect subjunctive (pretérito perfecto de subjuntivo) is a compound verb form used to express actions that have occurred in the past but have a relevance to the present or future. The present perfect subjunctive is formed by using the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verb “haber” (to have) followed by the past participle of the main verb.

Here is the conjugation of “ser” in the present perfect subjunctive:

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoHaya sido I have been
Hayas sidoYou have been
VosHayas sidoYou have been
Él/Ella/UstedHaya sidoHe/She has been, You have been
NosotrosHayamos sidoWe have been
VosotrosHayáis sidoYou have been
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesHayan sidoThey have been, You have been

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the present perfect subjunctive:

– Es necesario que yo haya sido honesto en mi testimonio. (It is necessary that I have been honest in my testimony.)

– Ojalá que tú hayas sido feliz en tu viaje. (I hope that you have been happy on your trip.)

– Espero que él haya sido un buen líder. (I hope that he has been a good leader.)

– Me alegro de que nosotros hayamos sido reconocidos por nuestro trabajo. (I’m glad that we have been recognized for our work.)

– Dudo que vosotros hayáis sido sinceros. (I doubt that you all have been sincere.)

– Es importante que ellos hayan sido responsables en sus decisiones. (It’s important that they have been responsible in their decisions.)

The present perfect subjunctive is often used in dependent clauses after certain conjunctions or expressions, such as “es necesario que” (it is necessary that), “espero que” (I hope that), “dudo que” (I doubt that), and others. It is used to express actions or states that have occurred in the past but are relevant to the present or future.

Please note that the present perfect subjunctive is not as commonly used as other verb forms in everyday conversation, but it can be encountered in formal or literary contexts.

Ser Pluperfect Subjunctive Conjugation (pluscuamperfecto de subjuntivo)

In Spanish, the pluperfect subjunctive (pluscuamperfecto de subjuntivo) is a compound verb form that expresses actions or states that hypothetically occurred before another past action or point in time. It is formed by combining the imperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb “haber” (to have) with the past participle of the main verb.

Although the verb “ser” is not commonly used in the pluperfect subjunctive due to its meaning as “to be,” I can provide you with the conjugation for the sake of completeness:

PronounSer ConjugationEnglish Meaning
YoHubiera/ HubiéseI had been 
Hubieres/ Hubieses You had been 
VosHubieres/ Hubieses You had been 
Él/Ella/UstedHubiere/ HubieseHe/She had been, You had been
NosotrosHubiéremos/ HubiésemosWe had been
VosotrosHubiérais/ HubiéseisYou had been
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesHubieran/ HubiesesThey had been, You had been

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the pluperfect subjunctive:

– Si yo hubiera sido más organizado, no habría tenido problemas. (If I had been more organized, I wouldn’t have had problems.)

– Esperaba que tú hubieras sido más comprensivo. (I had hoped that you had been more understanding.)

– Dudo que él hubiera sido capaz de hacerlo solo. (I doubt that he had been capable of doing it alone.)

– Si nosotros hubiéramos sido más audaces, habríamos logrado más. (If we had been bolder, we would have achieved more.)

– Ojalá que vosotros hubierais sido más puntuales. (I wish that you all had been more punctual.)

– Era necesario que ellos hubieran sido más transparentes en su comunicación. (It was necessary for them to have been more transparent in their communication.)

The pluperfect subjunctive is commonly used in dependent clauses introduced by conjunctions like “si” (if), “dudo que” (I doubt that), “esperaba que” (I had hoped that), and others. It expresses hypothetical or unrealized actions or states that occurred before another past event.

Ser Imperative Mood Conjugation

The imperative mood (modo imperativo) is used to give commands, make requests, or offer suggestions in Spanish. The verb “ser” also has imperative forms to express these actions directly. Here’s the conjugation of “ser” in the imperative mood:

ronounSer Conjugation (Affirmative)Ser Conjugation (Negative)English Meaning
No seasBe/Don’t be
VosNo seasBe/Don’t be
Él/Ella/UstedSeaNo seaBe/Don’t be
NosotrosSeamosNo seamosBe/Don’t be
VosotrosSedNo seáisBe/Don’t be
Ellos/Ellas/ UstedesSeanNo seanBe/Don’t be

Here are a few examples of “ser” conjugated in the imperative:

– Sé amable con los demás. (Be kind to others.)

– Sea puntual en la reunión. (Be punctual at the meeting.)

– Sed honestos en vuestros negocios. (Be honest in your business dealings.)

– Sean valientes y no se rindan. (Be brave and don’t give up.)

It’s important to note that the subject pronouns are typically omitted in the imperative mood, except for emphasis or clarity. The conjugated verb alone conveys the command or request. Additionally, the imperative forms “sé” and “sed” are irregular forms of “ser” in the imperative.

When using the imperative mood with “ser,” it’s essential to consider the context and the relationship between the speaker and the listener. The formal forms (sea, sean) are used when addressing someone respectfully or in more formal situations, while the informal forms (sé, sed) are used with friends, family, or in less formal settings.

And there we have it -the verb ser conjugated in sixteen forms across three different moods.

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